Australia's two top-selling cars are among the worst for reversing visibility.
The NRMA Insurance reversing visibility index shows 12 vehicles, including the Toyota Corolla and Holden Commodore, fail to receive any stars in testing.
The test, established because of the deaths of 17 children killed by reversing cars in driveways, measures how well a driver can see out of the back of the vehicle.
Of the 12 vehicles with a zero rating, five fit into the small-to-medium segment.
The result has prompted the NRMA to call on manufacturers to consider installing reversing camera technology in all cars, not just bigger vehicles.
“Without a camera, blind space can range from 3m to 15m,” NRMA Insurance road safety manager Pam Leicester said.
“That's a large range for children to be hidden from a driver's view.” With an average of one child run over in their own driveway every week, Ms Leicester said it was time to start focusing on improving visibility in all models.
“There has been a focus on four-wheel-drives and reversing but as our results show, that's an issue for all types of vehicles right down to small cars,” Ms Leicester said.
“This is a real concern because many of these vehicles have hazardous reversing blind areas, usually caused by high rear window lines and boots.”
Vehicles that received a zero rating included the Holden Commodore (Epica and Viva), the Hyundai i30, Mitsubishi's Lancer and 380, Toyota's Corolla, Prado and RAV4, the Honda Civic and the Odyssey, as well as the Hummer H3.
Overall, however, the results have improved from last year with more manufacturers adopting reversing cameras.
This is especially the case in the four-wheel-drive and luxury segments. Only five vehicles offered reversing cameras either standard or as an option last year.
The technology was available on 15 vehicles this year. They gained either a 4 1/2 or 5-star rating.
Ms Leicester said they were particularly impressed with the new Toyota Kluger, which has a reversing camera as standard on all models.
The top performers given a five-star rating were the BMW X5, Ford Territory, Honda Legend, Lexus GS430, IS250 and LS460, and the Toyota Kluger; all offering a camera as standard or as an option.
“We encourage all manufacturers to start thinking about putting reverse cameras in their vehicles,” Ms Leicester said.
“At the time of manufacture, it's a very small cost.”
Ms Leicester said after-market reversing cameras also could improve visibility and were available for between $200 and $300.
How they rated
NRMA insurance reversing visibility index
Best: BMW x5, Ford Territory, Honda, Legend, Lexus GS430, Lexus IS250, Lexus LS460, Toyota Kluger
Worst: Holden Commodore, Honda Civic, Honda Odyssey, Hyundai i30, Mitsubishi Lancer, Toyota Prado, Toyota Corolla